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Professor Stafford Lightman

Name:   Professor Stafford Lightman Stafford Lightman
Current Post:  

Consultant Endocrinologist, University Hospitals Bristol
Professor of Medicine, University of Bristol



Medical qualifications:  

MB BChir, MRCP, PhD, FRCP, F Med Sci


Date of registration:   GMC Full Registration 1972
Membership of professional bodies:  

Fellow of The Royal College of Physicians, Fellow of The Academy of Medical Sciences, The Endocrine Society (USA), Society for Endocrinology, British Society for Neuroendocrinology, British Neuroscience Association, Society for Neuroscience






Special clinical interests:  

Pituitary and adrenal disease


Professional profile/background:  

Stafford Lightman is Professor of Medicine at the University of Bristol in the United Kingdom and is Director of the Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology. He started his scientific career working on catecholamines and opioid peptides with Leslie Iversen at the University of Cambridge and provided some of the first data linking opioid peptides with the regulation of neurohypophysial function. At this time he also performed some of the first studies demonstrating the importance of brain stem catecholamine pathways in the regulation of hypothalamic activity. On moving to what is now Imperial College in London, he started to develop his studies on the role of the brain in the regulation of the stress response.  He demonstrated the shift from CRH to arginine vasopressin in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during chronic stress, demonstrated and characterised the development of stress hyporesponsiveness during lactation in both rats and man and developed models of immunological activation of the stress response. More recently he has developed the concept of emergent pulsatility of hormone secretion as a result of inherent delays in the feedforward or feedback relationships regulating endocrine activity. This has also led to a new emphasis on the importance of digital signalling at the level of glucocorticoid receptors and GR chromatin interactions.

Stafford Lightman was the founder Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Neuroendocrinology, a founder Fellow of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, the founder Chairman of the Pituitary Foundation and a Council Member of the Physiological Society. He sits on several Research Councils, Wellcome Trust and European Research Committees and has Chaired the European Union Committee Review of Tertiary Education in East Africa.  Professor Lightman also has a major interest in inter-relationships between art and neuroscience and is a frequent speaker on both radio and television.



Web links to any published articles: .
Manuscripts and textbook chapters (Excluding abstracts) since 2005


  1. Davey Smith G, Ben-Shlomo Y, Bedwick A, Yarnell J,Lightman SLand Elwood P.  Cortisol, testosterone and coronary heart disease: prospective evidence from the Caerphilly study. Circulation 112, 332-340.
  2. Seale JV, Wood SA, Atkinson HC, Harbuz MS andLightman SL.  Postnatal masculinisation alters the HPA axis phenotype in the adult female rat. Journal of Physiology 563 (pt.1) 265-274.
  3. Johnson PL, Hollis JH, Moratalla R,Lightman SL, Lowry CA.  Acute hypercarbic gas exposure reveals functionally distinct subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in rats. Journal of Psychopharmacology 19(4), 327-341.
  4. Henry BA,Lightman SLand Lowry CA.  Distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor binding protein-immunoreactivity in the rat hypothalamus: association with corticotropin-releasing factor-, urocortin 1- and vimentin-immunoreactive fibres. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 17, 135-144.
  5. Li XF, Bowe JE,Lightman SLand O'Byrne KT.  Role of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-2 in stress induced suppression of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in the rat. Endocrinology 146 (1) 318-322.
  6. Kaye J, Corrall RJ andLightman SL.  A new test for autonomic and neuroendocrine responses in Diabetes mellitus: evidence for early vagal dysfunction. Diabetologia 48 (1) 180-186.
  7. Hollis JH, Lowry CA,Lightman SL.  Lipopolysaccharide has selective actions on sub-populations of catecholaminergic neurons involved in activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and inhibition of prolactin secretion. Journal of Endocrinology 184, 393-406.
  8. Johnson PL, Moratalla,Lightman SLand Lowry CA.  Are tuberomammillary histaminergic neurons involved in CO2-mediated arousal? Experimental Neurology 193, 228-233.
  9. Seale JV, Wood SA, Atkinson HC,Lightman SLand Harbuz MS.  Organisational role for testosterone and estrogen on adult HPA axis activity in the male rat. Endocrinology 146(4), 1973-1982.
  10. Kinsey-Jones JS, XF Li, Bowe JE, Brain SD,Lightman SLand O'Byrne KT.  Effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide on gonadotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in GT1-7 cells Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 17, 541-544.
  11. Crown A,Lightman S.  Why is the management of glucocorticoid deficiency still controversial: a review of the literature. Clinical Endocrinology 63, 483-492.
  12. Gardner KL, Thrivikraman KV,Lightman SL,Plotsky PM and Lowry CA.  Early life experience alters behavior during social defeat: focus on serotonergic systems. Neuroscience 136, 181-191.


  1. Windle RJ, Gamble LE, Kershaw YM, Wood SA,Lightman SLand Ingram CD.  Gonadal steroid modulation of stress-induced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity and anxiety behavior: role of central oxytocin. Endocrinology 147(5), 2423-2431.
  2. Spiga F,Lightman SL, Shekhar A and Lowry CA.  Injections of urocortin 1 into the basolateral amygdala induce anxiety-like behavior and c-Fos expression in brainstem serotonergic neurons. Neuroscience 138 (4), 1265-1274.
  3. Kaye JM, Young TM, Mathias CJ, Watson L, Lightman SL.  Neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to CO2 inhalation in central versus peripheral autonomic failure. Clinical Autonomic Research 16 (2), 121-129.
  4. Uney JB,Lightman SLMicroRNAs and osmotic regulation.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 103, No. 42, 15278-15289.
  5. Lightman SL.  Patterns of exposure to glucocorticoid receptor ligand. Biochemical Society Transactions 34, 1117-1118.
  6. Li XF, Bowe JE, Kinsey-Jones JS, Brain SD,Lightman SL, andO'Byrne KT.  Differential role of corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor types 1 and 2 in stress-induced suppression of pulsatile luteinising hormone secretion in the female rat. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 18, 602-610.
  7. Herbert J, Goodyer IM, Grossman A, Hastings MH, de Kloet ER,Lightman SL, Lupien SJ, Roozendaal B and Seckl JR.  Do corticosteroids damage the brain? Journal of Neuroendocrinology 18, 393-411.
  8. Wetherell MA, Crown AL,Lightman SL,Miles JNV, Kaye J and Vedhara K.  The four-dimensional stress test:: psychological, sympathetic-adrenal-medullary, parasympathetic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses following inhalation of 35% CO2 Psychoneuroendocrinology 31, 736-747.
  9. Atkinson HC, Wood SA, Kershaw YM, Bate E andLightman SL.  Diurnal variation in the responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of the male rat. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 18, 526-533.
  10. Kaye JM and Lightman SL.  Corticosteroids and the cardiovascular response to stress: A pilot study of the 35% CO2 challenge in Addison's disease. Clinical Endocrinology 65, 282-286.
  11. Hollis JH, Evans AK, Bruce KPE,Lightman SL, Lowry CA.  Lipopolysaccharide has indomethacin-sensitive actions on Fos expression in topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurones. Brain Behavior and Immunity 20, 569-577.
  12. Ruddick JP, Evans AK, Nutt DJ,Lightman SL, Rook GAW, Lowry CA.  Tryptophan metabolism in the central nervous system: medical implications Expert. Reviews in Molecular Medicine Vol. 8, Issue 20 August 2006.
  13. Crown A,Lightman S.  Management of patients with glucocorticoid deficiency. Nature Clinical Practice Vol 1 No. 2 62-63.


  1. 26.       Conway-Campbell BL, McKenna MA, Wiles CC, Atkinson HC, de Kloet R,Lightman SL.  Proteasome-dependent down-regulation of activated nuclear hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors determines dynamic responses to corticosterone.  Endocrinology; 148 (11): 5470-5477.
  2. Tran N, Koch A, Berkels R, Boehm O, Zacharowski PA, Baumgarten G, Knuefermann P, Schott M, Kanczkowski W, Bornstein SR, Lightman SL, Zacharowski K.  Toll-like receptor 9 expression in murine and human adrenal glands and possible implications during inflammation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 92(7):2773-83.
  3. Lowry CA, Hollis JH, De Vries A, Pan B, Brunet LR, Hunt JRF, Paton JFR, Van Kampen E, Knight DM, Evans AK, Rook GAW,Lightman SL.  Identification of an immune-responsive mesolimbocortical serotonergic system: potential role in regulation of emotional behavior.  Neuroscience 146(2):756-772.
  4. Yau JL, Noble J, Thomas S, Kerwin R, Morgan PE, Lightman S, Seckl JR, Pariante CM.  The antidepressant desipramine requires the ABCB1 (Mdr1)-type p-glycoprotein to upregulate the glucocorticoid receptor in mice.  Neuropsychopharmacology; 32(12):2520-9.
  5. 30.       Ayres BE, Thomas F, Zacharowski K, Lightman SL, Persad RA.  The stress response in laparoscopic urological surgery.  BJU International 99(6), 1331-1332.
  6. 31.       Vedhara K, Miles J, Crown A, McCarthy A, Shanks N, Davies D, Lightman SL, Davey-Smith G, Ben‑Shlomo Y.  Relationship of early childhood illness with adult cortisol in the Barry Caerphilly Grown (BDG) cohort.  Psychoneuroendocrinology 32; 865-873.
  7. Connan F,Lightman SL, Landau S, Wheeler M, Treasure J, Campbell IC.  An investigation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity in anorexia nervosa: The role of CRH and AVP. Journal of Psychiatric Research 41, 131-143.
  8. Orlovsky MA, Spiga F, Lebed YV, Skibo GG,Lightman SL.  Early molecular events in the hippocampus of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.  Neurophysiology; 39 (6): 435-438.
  9. Juruena MF, Cleare AJ, Papadopoulos AS, Poon L,Lightman SL, Pariante CM.  Different responses to dexamethasone and prednisolone in the same depressed patients.  Psychopharmacology 189: 225-235.


  1. John S, Sabo P, Johnson TA, Sung M-H, Biddie SC,Lightman S, Voss TC, Davis SR, Meltzer PS, Stamatoyannopoulos JA, Hager GL.  Interaction of the glucocorticoid receptor with the chromatin landscape.  Molecular Cell; 29: 611-624.
  2. McCutcheon JE, Fisher AS,Guzdar E, Wood SA,Lightman SL, Hunt SP. Genetic background influences the behavioural and molecular consequences of neurokinin-1 receptor knockout.  European Journal of Neuroscience; 27: 683-690.
  3. Lightman SL, Wiles CC, Atkinson HC, Henley DE, Russell, GM, Leendertz JA, McKenna MA, Spiga F, Wood SA, and Conway-Campbell BL.  The significance of glucocorticoid pulsatility.  European Journal of Pharmacology; 583: 255-262.
  4. Droste SK, de Groote L, Atkinson HC,Lightman SL, Reul JMHM, Linthorst ACE.  Corticosterone levels in the brain show a distinct ultradian rhythm but a delayed response to forced swim stress.  Endocrinology;149(7):3244-3253.
  5. Atkinson HC, Wood SA, Castrique ES, Kershaw YM, Wiles CC andLightman SL.  Corticosteroids mediate fast feedback of the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via the mineralocorticoid receptor.  American Journal of Physiology; 294 (6): E1011-E1022.
  6. Spiga F, Harrison LR, Wood SA, Atkinson HC, MacSweeney CP, Thomson F, Craighead M, Grassie M,Lightman SL.  Effect of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist Org 34850 on fast and delayed feedback of corticosterone release.  Journal of Endocrinology; 196: 323-330.
  7. Lightman SL.  The neuroendocrinology of stress: A never ending story.  Journal of Neuroendocrinology; 20: 880-884.
  8. Rockliff H, Gilbert P, McEwan K,Lightman S, Glover D.  A pilot exploration of heart rate variability and salivary cortisol responses to compassion-focused imagery. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 5,3: 132-139.
  9. Pariante CM andLightman SL.  The HPA axis in major depression: classical theories and new developments.  Trends in Neuroscience; 31 (9): 464-468.
  10. Chen J, Young S, Subburaju S, Sheppard J, Kiss A, Atkinson H, Wood S,Lightman S, Seeradeil-Le Gal C, Aguilera G.  Vasopressin does not mediate hypersensitivity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis during chronic stress.  Stress, Neurotransmitters and Hormones: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences; 1148: 349-359.
  11. Bowe JE, Li XF, Kinsey-Jones JS, Brain SD,Lightman SL, O'Bryne KT.  The role of corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptors in the calcitoinin gene-related peptide-induced suppression of pulsatile luteinising hormone secretion in the female rat.  Stress; 11(4): 312-319.
  12. Kinsey-Jones JS, Li XF, Knox AMI, Wilkinson ES, Zhu XL, Chaudhary AA, Milligan SR,Lightman SL, O'Byrne KT.  Down regulation of hypothalamic Kisspeptin and its receptor, Kiss1r, mRNA expression is associated with stress-induced suppression of luteinizing hormone secretion in the female rat.  Journal of Neuroendocrinology; 21: 20-29.


  1. Stavreva DA, Wiench M, John S, Conway-Campbell BL, McKenna MA, Pooley JR, Johnson TA, Voss TC,Lightman SL, Hager GL.  Ultradian hormone stimulation induces glucocorticoid receptor-mediated pulses of gene transcription.  Nature Cell Biology; 11: 1093-1102.
  2. Evuarherhe O, Leggett JD, Waite EJ, Kershaw YM, Atkinson HC,Lightman SL.  Organizational role for pubertal androgens on adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal sensitivity to testosterone in the male rat.  The Journal of Physiology; 587: 2977-2985.
  3. Henley DE, Russell GM, Douthwaite J, WoodSA, Buchanan F, GibsonR, WoltersdorfWW, Catterall JR,Lightman SL.  Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation in obstructive sleep apnea: The effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy.  Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism; 94(11): 4234-4242.
  4. Gardner KL, Hale MW, Oldfield S,Lightman SL, Plotsky P, Lowry CA.  Adverse experience during early life and adulthood interact to elevatetpn2mRNA expression in serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus.  Neuroscience; 163: 991-1001.
  5. Rivers C, Flynn A, Qian X, Matthews L,Lightman S, Ray D, Norman M.  Characterisation of conserved tandem donor sites and intronic motifs required for alternative splicing in corticosteroid receptor genes.  Endocrinology; 150(11):4958-67.
  6. Droste SK, Collins A,Lightman SL, Linthorst ACE, Reul JMHM.  Distinct, time-dependent effects of voluntary exercise on circadian and ultradian rhythms and stress responses of free corticosterone in the rat hippocampus.  Endocrinology; 150(9): 4170-9.
  7. Li XF, Kinsey-Jones J, Chen YS, Knox A, Lin Y, Petrou N, Roseweir A,Lightman S, Milligan S, Millar R, O'Byrne K.  Kisspeptin signalling in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus regulates GnRH pulse generator frequency.  PLoS One; 4: e8334.
  8. Juruena MF, Pariante CM, Papadopoulos AS, Poon L,Lightman S, Cleare AJ.  Prednisolone suppression test in depression: prospective study of the role of HPA axis dysfunction in treatment resistance.  British Journal of Psychiatry; 194: 342-349.
  9. Conway-Campbell BL, Wiles CC,Lightman SL.  The significance of dysregulated basal glucocorticoid pulsatility in affective disorders.  In: Understanding Depression.  Chapter 7.  Edited by Carmine M Pariante.  Oxford University Press. Pages 77-90.
  10. Lowry C, Hale MW, Plant A, Windle RJ, Shanks N, Wood S, Ingram CD, Renner KJ,Lightman S, Summers CH.  Fluoxetine inhibits corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-induced behavioural responses in rats.  Stress; 12 (3): 225-239.
  11. Knox AMI, Li XF, Kinsey-Jones JS, Wilkinson ES, Wu XQ, Cheng YS, Milligan SR,Lightman SL, O'Byrne KT.  Neonatal lipopolysaccharide exposure delays puberty and alters hypothalamicKiss1andKiss1rmRNA expression in the female rat.  Journal of Neuroendocrinology; 21: 683-689.
  12. Waite E, Kershaw Y, Spiga F,Lightman S.  A glucocorticoid sensitive biphasic rhythm of testosterone secretion.  Journal of Neuroendocrinology; 21: 737-741.
  13. Lowry, CA,Lightman SLand Nutt DJ.  That warm fuzzy feeling: brain serotonergic neurons and the regulation of emotion. Journal of Psychopharmacology; 23(4):392-400.
  14. Spiga F andLightman SL.  Dose-dependent effects of corticosterone on nuclear glucocorticoid receptors and their binding to DNA in the brain and pituitary of the rat.  Brain Research; 1293:101-7.
  15. Henley DE, Buchanan F, Gibson R, Douthwaite JA, Wood SA, Woltersdorf WW, Catterall JR,Light man SL.  Plasma apelin levels in obstructive sleep apnea and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy.  Journal of Endocrinology; 203: 181-188.
  16. Li XF. Kinsey-Jones JS, Bowe JE, Wilkinson ES, Brain SD,Lightman SL, O'Byrne KT.  A role for the medial preoptic area in CGRP-induced suppression of pulsatile LH secretion in the female rat.  Stress;12(3): 259-267.
  17. Shufflebotham J, Wetherell MA, Hince D, Hood S,Lightman S, Nutt D, Probert C, Potokar J.  Females with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome show an increased pressure response to 35% carbon dioxide stress challenge.  Stress. 12 (1): 30-36.
  18. Droste SK, de Groote L,Lightman SL, Reul JMHM, Linthorst ACE.  The ultradian and circadian rhythms of free corticosterone in the brain are not affected by gender: An in vivo microdialysis study in Wistar rats.  Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 21: 132-140.
  19. Henley D, Leendertz J, Russell G, Wood S, Taheri S, Woltersdorf W,Lightman SL.  Development of an automated blood sampling system for use in humans. Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology; 33(3): 199-208.
  20. Evuarherhe O, Wood S, Atkinson H,Lightman S.  Reversal of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal response to oestrogens around puberty.  Journal of Endocrinology; 202(2): 279-285.
  21. Gardner KL, Hale MW,Lightman SL, Plotsky P, Lowry CA.  Adverse early life experience and social stress during adulthood interact to increase serotonin transporter mRNA expression.  Brain Research; 1305: 47-63.
  22. Pearson RM,Lightman SL, Evans J.  Emotional sensitivity for motherhood: Late pregnancy is associated with enhanced accuracy to encode emotional faces.  Hormones and Behavior; 56(5):557-63.
  23. Spiga F, Harrison. LR, Wood S, Knight DM,MacSweeney CP, Thomson F, Craighead M, Lightman SL.  Blockade of the V1b receptor reduces ACTH, but not corticosterone, secretion induced by stress without affecting basal HPA axis activity.  Journal of Endocrinology; 200(3): 273-283.
  24. Spiga F, Harrison LR, MacSweeney CP, Thomson FJ, CraigheadM,Lightman SL.  Effect of vasopressin 1b receptor blockade on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response of chronically stressed rats to a heterotypic stressor.  Journal of Endocrinology; 200(3): 285-291.
  25. Pearson RM, Cooper RM, I. Penton-Voak S,Lightman SL, Evans J.  Depressive symptoms in early pregnancy disrupt attentional processing of infant emotion.  Psychological Medicine; 12: 1-11.


  1. Walker JJ, Terry JR, Lightman SL.  Origin of ultradian pulsatility in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.  Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences; 277(1688):1627-33.
  2. Russell G, Henley D, Leendertz J, Douthwaite J, Wood S, Stevens A, Woltersdorf W, Peeters B, Ruigt G, White A, Veldhuis J,Lightman S.  Rapid glucocorticoid receptor mediated inhibition of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ultradian activity in healthy males.  Journal of Neuroscience; 30: 6106-6115.
  3. Cameron A, Henley D, Carrell R, Zhou A, Clarke A,Lightman SL.  Temperature-responsive release of cortisol from its binding globulin: A protein thermocouple.  Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism; 95(10):4689-95.
  4. Atkinson HC, Leggett JD, Wood SA, Castrique ES, Kershaw YM,Lightman SL.  Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis circadian rhythm by endocannabinoids is sexually diergic.  Endocrinology; 151(8): 3720-3727.
  5. Sarabdjitsingh R, Conway-Campbell B, Leggett J, Waite E, Meijer O, de Kloet R,Lightman SL.  Stress responsiveness varies over the ultradian glucocorticoid cycle in a brain-region specific manner.  Endocrinology; 151(11):5369-79.
  6. Lightman SLand Conway-Campbell BL.  The crucial role of pulsatile activity of the HPA axis for continuous dynamic equilibration.  Nature Reviews Neuroscience; 11(10): 710-8.
  7. PerogamvrosI, Underhill C, HenleyDE, Hadfield KD, NewmanWG, Ray DW, LightmanSL, Hammond GL  & TrainerPJ.  A novel inherited corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) variant causes functional CBG deficiency and a very low total serum cortisol concentration with normal bioavailable cortisol levels.  Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism; Vol. 95, No. 10 E142-E150.
  8. 79.       Conway-Campbell BL, Sarabdjitsingh RA, McKenna MA, Pooley JR, Kershaw YM, Meijer OC, de Kloet ER, Lightman SL.  Glucocorticoid ultradian rhythmicity directs cyclical gene pulsing of the Clock gene Period 1 in rat hippocampus. Journal of Neuroendocrinology; 22: 1093-1100.
  9. Windle R, Wood SA, Kershaw YM, Lightman SL, Ingram CD.  Reduced stress responsiveness in pregnancy: Relationship with pattern of forebrain c-fos mRNA expression.  Brain Research Brain; 1358:102-9.
  10. Walker JJ, Terry JR, Tsaneva-Atanasova K, Armstrong SP, McArdle CA,Lightman SL.  Encoding and decoding mechanisms of pulsatile hormone section.  Journal of Neuroendocrinology; 22(12):1226-1238.
  11. Li XF, Lin YS, Kinsey-Jones JS, Milligan SR,Lightman SL, O'Byrne KT.  The role of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in stress-induced inhibition of pulsatile LH secretion in the female rat. Journal of Neuroendocrinology; 23; 3-11.
  12. Biddie SC andLightman SL.  Epigenetics: A lasting impression?  Neuroendocrinology Briefings 36.  Journal of Neuroendocrinolology; 23(2): 194-195.
  13. Sarabdjitsingh R, Spiga F, Oitzl M, Kershaw Y, Meijer O,Lightman SL,de Kloet R.  Recovery from disrupted ultradian glucocorticoid rhythmicity reveals a dissociation between hormonal and behavioral stress responsiveness.  Journal of Neuroendocrinology; 22: 862-871.
  14. Vedhara K, Brant H, Alexiou A, Petrie KJ, Miles JNV, Lightman SL.  An investigation into the effects of social evaluation on cardiovascular and endocrine responses to the CO2 stress test in humans.  Stress; 13(3):195-202.
  15. Juruena M, Cleare A, Papadopoulos A, Poon L,Lightman SL, Pariante C.  The prednisolone test in depression: Dose-response and changes with anti-depressant treatment.  Psychoneuroendocrinology; 35: 1486-1491.
  16. Brant H, Wetherell MA, Lightman S, Crown A, Vedhara K.  An exploration into physiological and self-report measures of stress in pre-registration doctors at the beginning and end of a clinical rotation.  Stress; 13: 155-162.
  17. Kinsey-Jones JS, Li XF, Knox AM, Lin YS, Milligan SR, Lightman SL, O'Byrne KT.  Corticotrophin-releasing factor alters the timing of puberty in the female rat.  Journal of Neuroendocrinology; 22(2):102-9.


  1. Conway-Campbell BL, George CL, Pooley JR, Knight DM, Norman MR, Hager GL,Lightman SL.  The HSP90 molecular chaperone cycle regulates cyclical transcriptional dynamics of the glucocorticoid receptor and its co-regulatory molecules CBP/P300 during ultradian ligand treatment.  Molecular Endocrinology; 25(6):944-54.
  2. Biddie SC, John S, Sabo PJ, Thurman RE, Schiltz RL, Johnson TA, Sung MH, Trump S,Lightman SL, Vinson C, Stamatoyannopoulos JA and Hager GL.  Transcription Factor AP1 Potentiates Chromatin Accessibility and Glucocorticoid Receptor Binding. Mol Cell; 43(1):145-55.
  3. Andrews MH, Wood SA, Windle RJ,Lightman SL, Ingram CD.  Acute glucocorticoid administration rapidly suppresses basal and stress-induced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity.  Endocrinology 153(1):200-11.
  4. Lin Y, Xiao Li XF, Lupi M, Kinsey-Jones JS, Be S, Lightman SL, and Kevin T O'Byrne KT.  The role of the medial and central amygdala in stress-induced suppression of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in female rats.  Endocrinology; 152(2):545-55.
  5. Wu XQ, Li XF, Ye B, Popat N, Milligan SR,Lightman SL, O'Byrne KT.  Neonatal programming by immunological challenge: effects on ovarian function in the adult rat.  Reproduction ; 141(2):241-8.
  6. Johnson PL, Fitz SD, Hollis JH, Moratalla R,Lightman SL, Shekhar A, Lowry CA.  Induction of C-fos in "panic/defence"-related brain circuits following brief hypercarbic gas exposure.  Journal of Psychopharmacology; 25(1):26-36.
  7. O'Keane V, Lightman S, Marsh M, Pawlby S, Papadopoulos AS, Taylor A, Moore R, Patrick K.  Increased pituitary-adrenal activation and shortened gestation in a sample of depressed pregnant women: a pilot study. Journal of Affective Disorders; 130:300-305.
  8. Pearson RM,Lightman SLand Evans J.  Attentional processing of infant emotion during late pregnancy and mother-infant relations after birth. Archives of Women's Mental Health; 14(1):23-31.
  9. Spiga F, Waite EJ, Liu Y, Kershaw YM, Aguilera G,Lightman SL.  ACTH-dependent ultradian rhythm of corticosterone secertion.  Endocrinology; 152(4):1448-57.
  10. Henley DE &Lightman SL.  New insights into corticosteroid-binding globulin and glucocorticoid delivery.  Neuroscience; 180:1-8.
  11. Biddie SC &Lightman SL.  Epigenetics: A lasting impression?  Journal of Neuroendocrinology; 23: 194-195.
  12. Mason BL, Thomas SA, Lightman SL, Pariante CM.   Desipramine treatment has minimal effects on the brain accumulation of glucocorticoids in P-gp-deficient and wild-type mice. Psychoneuroendocrinology; 36(9):1351-60.
  13. Biddie SC, Conway-Campbell BL,Lightman SL.  Dynamic regulation of glucocorticoid signalling in health and disease.  Rheumatology; 51:403-412.
  14. Spiga F, Liu Y, Aguilera G,Lightman SL.  Temporal Effect of Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone on Adrenal Glucocorticoid Steroidogenesis: Involvement of the Transducer of Regulated Cyclic AMP-Response Element-Binding Protein Activity.  Journal of Neuroendocrinology; 23(2):136-42.
  15. Pearson RM,Lightman SL, Evans J.  The impact of breast feeding on mothers' attentional sensitivity towards infant distress.  Infant Behavior and Development; 34(1): 200-5.
  16. Spiga F, Knight DM, Droste SK, Conway-Campbell B, Kershaw Y, MacSweeney CP, Thomson FJ, Craighead M, Peeters BW, Lightman SL.  Differential effect of glucocorticoid receptor antagonists on glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation and DNA binding.  J Psychopharmacol ; 25(2):211-21.
  17. Henley DE, Kaye JM,Lightman SL.  The Endocrine Response to Stress.  Chapter in: Pituitary and Hypothalamic Diseases - Neuropsychiatric endocrinological disorders.  Edited by Wass JAH and Stewart PM.  Oxford Textbook of Endocrinology and Diabetes, 2.6.3; pages 287-294.
  18. O'Keane V,Lightman S, Patrick K, Marsh M, Papadopoulos AS, Pawlby S, Seneviratne G, Taylor A, Moore R.  Changes in the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during the early puerperium may be related to postpartum 'blues'.  Journal of Neuroendocrinology; 23: 1149-1155.
  19. Gardner MP, Lightman S, Gallacher J, Hardy R, Kuh D, Ebrahim S, Bayer T, Ben-Shlomo Y and the Halcyon study team.  Diurnal cortisol patterns are associated with physical performance in the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS).  International Journal of Epidemiology;40(6):1693-1702.
  20. George CL,Lightman SL, Biddie SC.  Transcription factor interactions in genomic nuclear receptor function.  Epigenomics; 3: 471-485.


  1. Walker JJ, Spiga F, Waite E, Kershaw Y, Terry JR,Lightman SL.  The origin of glucocorticoid hormone oscillations.  PLoS Biology; 10(6): e1001341. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001341.
  2. Rankin J, Walker JJ, Windle R, Lightman SL, Terry JR.  Characterizing dynamic interactions between ultradian glucocorticoid rhythmicity and acute stress using the phase response curve.  PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e30978. Epub 2012 Feb 21.
  3. Kinsey-Jones JS, Grachev P, Li XF, Lin YS, Milligan SR,Lightman SL, O'Byrne KT.  The inhibitory effects of neurokinin B on GnRH pulse generator frequency in the female rat.  Endocrinology; 153(1):307-15.
  4. Waite EJ, McKenna M, Kershaw Y, Walker JJ, Cho K, Piggins HD,Lightman SL.  Ultradian corticosterone secretion is maintained in the absence of circadian cues.  European Journal of Neuroscience - article first published online: 23 July 2012 - DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08213.x.
  5. Grachev P, Li X-F, Kinsey-Jones JS, di Domenico AL, Millar RP,Lightman SL, O'Byrne KT.  Suppression of the GnRH pulse generator by neurokinin B involves a kappa-opioid receptor-dependent mechanism.  Endocrinology; 153(10):4894-904. Epub 2012 Aug 17.
  6. Qian XX, Droste S,Lightman S, Reul H, Linthorst A.  Circadian and ultradian rhythms of free glucocorticoid hormone are highly synchronized between the blood, the subcutaneous tissue and the brain.  Endocrinology; 153(9):4346-4353.
  7. Conway-Campbell BL, Pooley JR, Hager GL,Lightman SL.  Molecular dynamics of ultradian glucocorticoid receptor action.  Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology; 348:383-393.
  8. Johnson PL, Samuels BC, Fitz SD, Lightman SL, Lowry CA, Shekhar A.  Activation of the orexin 1 receptor is a critical component of CO2 mediated anxiety and hypertension but not bradycardia. Neuropsychopharmacology; 37(8):1911-22.
  9. Hazell GGJ, Hindmarch CC, Pope GR, Roper JA, Lightman SL, Murphy D, O'Carroll AM, Lolait SJ.  G protein-coupled receptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei - serpentine gateways to neuroendocrine homeostasis.  Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology; 33:45-66.
  10. Galhardo J, Hunt LP,Lightman SL, Sabin MA, Bergh C, Sodersten P, Shield JPH.  Normalizing eating behaviour reduces body weight and improves gastro-intestinal hormonal secretion in obese adolescents. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism; 97:E193-E201.
  11. Lin YS, Li XF, Shao B, Hu MH, Goundry A, Jeyaram A,Lightman SL, O'Byrne KT.  The role of GABAergic signalling in stress-induced suppression of gonadtrophin-releasing hormone pulse generator frequency in female rats.  Journal of Neuroendocrinology; 24:477-488.
  12. Vedhara K, Metcalfe C, Brant H, Crown A, Northstone K,Dawe K,Lightman S, Davey Smith G.  Maternal mood and neuroendocrine programming: effects of time of exposure and sex Journal of Neuroendocrinology; 24:999-1011.
  13. Dawson C, Dhanda A, Conway-Campbell B, Di Mambro A,Lightman S, Dayan C.  NFκB and glucocorticoid receptor activity in steroid resistance.  Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction; 32(1):29-35.
  14. Grachev P, Xiao Li X-F; Lin YS, Hu MH, Elsamani L; Paterson SJ, Millar RP,Lightman SL; O'Byrne KT.  GPR54-dependent stimulation of luteinizing hormone secretion by neurokinin B in peripubertal rats: PLoS One 2012;7(9):e44344. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044344. Epub 2012 Sep 28.
  15. Pearson R,Lightman SL, Evans J.  Symptoms of depression during pregnancy are associated with increased systolic blood pressure responses towards infant distress.  Archives Women's Mental Health; 15(2):95-105.
  16. Turner-Cobb J, Jessop D andLightman SL.  Effects of childhood stress: Hardwired or reversible?  The Biologist; 59(4):31-35.